Updating quantum cryptography 2016
While quantum key distribution is seemingly secure, its applications face the challenge of practicality.
This is due to transmission distance and key generation rate limitations. proposed a scheme that can possibly overcome the "rate-distance limit".
Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks.
The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem.
For example, unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment was shown impossible by Mayers For example, the sender, Alice, will determine a random basis and sequence of qubits and then transmit them to Bob. Once Bob has recorded the qubits sent by Alice, he makes a guess to Alice on what basis she chose.
Alice reports whether Bob won or lost and then transmits her entire original qubit sequence to him.
For example, Alice and Bob collaborate to perform some computation where both parties enter some private inputs.
If one attempts to read the encoded data, the quantum state will be changed (no-cloning theorem).
This could be used to detect eavesdropping in quantum key distribution.
Quantum cryptography attributes its beginning by the work of Stephen Wiesner and Gilles Brassard.
(Boston, Massachusetts, United States), ID Quantique (Geneva, Switzerland), Quintessence Labs (Canberra, Australia) and Se Qure Net (Paris, France).
The most well known and developed application of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution (QKD), which is the process of using quantum communication to establish a shared key between two parties (Alice and Bob, for example) without a third party (Eve) learning anything about that key, even if Eve can eavesdrop on all communication between Alice and Bob.